lugfoto Taalmonument

INdawo yeSikhumbuzo yoLwimi lwesiAfrikaans ibhiyozela ulwimi olubalaseleyo eAfrika, yaye yenye yeendawo kwezininzi zesikhumbuzo zeelwimi ehlabathini naseMzantsi Afrika. Eyona indala eMzantsi Afrika esiyaziyo iseBurgersdorp eMpuma Koloni, neyakhiwa ngowe-1893 ngelokuphakamisa ulwimi lwesiDatshi. Iidolophu zaseFreystata iKroonstad neWelkom zakha iindawo zezikhumbuzo ukunika imbeko kulwimi lwesiAfrikaans ngowe-1959, kodwa ezinye iidolophu ezininzi eMzantsi Afrika zakha ezazo iindawo zesikhumbuzo ezincinci kwiminyaka yee-1970 ngoxa kwakusakhiwa le ndawo yesikhumbuzo idumileyo ePaarl. Siyazazi nezinye iindawo zezikhumbuzo ezinjalo ezingaphezu kwama-20 kulo lonke eloMzantsi Afrika.

  • IsiAfrikaans asizange siqale ePaarl, kodwa yona inxalenye ebalulekileyo yembali yesiAfrikaans yabonakala apha ePaarl.
  • Phakathi kwiminyaka yee-1800 ingcali yolwimi engumDantshi uArnoldus Pannevis wafumanisa ukuba olu lwimi sele luzimele waza waphakamisa ukuba lubizwe ngokuba yi-Afrikaans, endaweni yeCape Dutch. Yena nabanye abemi basePaarl bafuna ukuguqulela iBhayibhile beyisa esiAfrikansi ukuze basimisele njengolwimi olubhalwayo. Bagqiba kwelokuba babumbe umbutho onokwenza ukuba isiAfrikaanssigqalwe njengolwimi olubhalwayo, ngoko kwasekwa iFellowship of True Afrikaners (Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners, GRA) ePaarl nge-14 Agasti 1875 kwindlu eneNdawo yeSikhumbuzo yesiAfrikaans namhlanje.
  • INdawo yeSikhumbuzo yoLwimi, engumkrolo ubukhulu becala engengomsebenzi wobugcisa, yakhiwa ePaarl njengoko abemi basePaarl babefuna ukukhumbula igalelo loMbutho Wolwimi Wokuqala (i-GRA). Okuphawulekayo kukuba, le ndawo yesikhumbuzo yatyhilwa nge-10 Oktobha 1975, iminyaka eli-100 ephawulekayo yokusekwa kwe-GRA neminyaka engama-50 emva kokuba isiAfrikaanssibe lulwimi olusemthethweni lweli lizwe ngowe-1925. Imela yaye ibhiyozela ukwahlukahlukana, ukuhluma nemvelaphi yesiAfrikaans.
  • Noko ke, imbewu yokuqala yesiAfrikaans yayisele ihlwayelwe ngeminyaka yee-1500 xa kwabakho uqhagamshelwano lolwimi phakathi kwamaKhoikhoi nabahambi ngolwandle abangamaDatshi.
  • Imvelaphi yolu lwimi iphakathi kwamazwekazi amathathu, iYurophu, iMpuma kunye ne-Afrika – yaye oku kuboniswa yile ndawo yesikhumbuzo. Imela iilwimi ezahlukeneyo ezabumba isiAfrikaans, ichaza oko kwakhuthaza ababhali ababini besiAfrikaans, ize ichaze isiAfrikaans ngokunxulumene ne-Afrika.

Le ndawo yesikhumbuzo, liziko elimanyeneyo, elizabalazela ukuba wonke umntu ahlonele aze axabise isiAfrikaans. Inalo moya, indawo yesikhumbuzo isebenza nzima ukukhuthaza nokuxhasa isiAfrikaans, ingakumbi phakathi kolutsha nabo bathetha olu lwimi kodwa ingelolwimi lomthonyama kubo. Le ndawo yesikhumbuzo ngokuqhubekayo izama ukuphucula ulwalamano phakathi kwesiAfrikaans nezinye iilwimi zomthonyama, phakathi kwezinye izinto ngokuqonda nokubonisa intsebenziswano phakathi kwazo. Iphupha lethu kukuqinisekisa ukuba le ndawo yesikhumbuzo isebenza njengebhakana yethemba ekuphuhlisweni nasekugqalweni kwazo zonke iilwimi zaseAfrika.

1 – Dit is ons erns

Kwintlanganiso yasesidlangalaleni ngowe-1942, abemi basePaarl bagqiba kwelokuba bakhe indawo yesikhumbuzo yolwimi lwesiAfrikaans. Ngowe-1943, kwasekwa ikomiti eyayiza kuqokelela imali yokwakha le ndawo yesikhumbuzo.

Ngowe-1964 iphupha lasondela ekuzalisekeni xa amagcisa ali-12 amenywa ukuba athathe inxaxheba kukhuphiswano lokuyila indawo yesikhumbuzo. Imiyalelo kuwo yayisithi le ndawo yesikhumbuzo kucingwa ngayo imele ibonise uhlumo lwezenkcubeko, olwemfundo nolwezopolitiko lwesiAfrikaans. Enye inkalo ebalulekileyo yayikukuba le ndawo yesikhumbuzo kufuneka ibonakale kude.

Ekugqibeleni kwakhethwa isiphakamiso segcisa uJan van Wijk. Uyilo lwakhe lusekelwe kwimibhalo yababhali ababini besiAfrikaans yaye babekhuthazwa yimo esemagqabini.

Imbali yamagama asepavumenteni athi, “Dit is ons erns” (ngamafutshane aguqulelwe ngokuthi “Sizimisele ngale nto”), ibuy’ umva iye kufika kowe-1905 xa owezopolitiko u-JH Hofmeyr wanikela intetho engamalungelo olwimi enomxholo othi “Is’t u Ernst?” (“Ngaba nizimisele ngale nto?”). Lo mbuzo wakhawuleza watshintshwa ngamatsha-ntliziyo olwimi waba yimpendulo eqinisekisayo, yaye xa kwakufunwa umxholo wonyaka woMnyhadala woLwimi ka-1975 kwagqitywa kwelokuba uthiywe, “Dit is ons erns”. UVan Wijk waphakamisa ukuba la magama abhalwe kwipevingi ngelokutsalela ingqalelo yabantu kwintsingiselo yale ndawo yesikhumbuzo.

Umiselo lwale ndawo yesikhumbuzo ngowe-10 Oktobha 1975 lwaluzinyaswe zizihlwele zabantu abangaphezu kwe-40 000 abeza kule mibhiyozo. Olo suku lwaluquka intetho eyanikelwa yinkulumbuso yelo xesha uBJ Vorster, ukufundwa kombongo wesiAfrikaanska-Adam Small onomxholo othi ‘Nkosi sikelel’ iAfrika’ nomnyhadala weekwayara ezazimela izithethi ezininzi zesiAfrikaans.

2 – Okwakhuthaza olu yilo

Omnye weyona migaqo yoyilo owawubalulekile kweli gcisa yayikukudibanisa le ndawo yesikhumbuzo kwindawo yemvelo, nokuyiphucula. UVan Wijk wathi uhambe kwindledlana endala yomlilo ukuze ahlole esi siza siphakanyiswayo, waza wasijonga esi siza nakwamanye amacala njengoko indawo yesikhumbuzo imele ibonakale ikude. Wagqiba kwelokuba imigca nezinye iinkalo zendawo yesikhumbuzo zimele zifane nemigca yemvelo yokusingqongileyo nokuba izinto zokwakha zimele ziphelelisane namatye asentabeni. Kungeso sizathu le ndawo yesikhumbuzo yakhiwa ngomxube we-granite yasePaarl, isanti emhlophe nesamente.

Inyathelo elilandelayo laba kukufumana umfanekiso ofanelekileyo onokubonisa isiAfrikaans. Wafunyanwa kumazwi ombhali odumileyo u-CJ Langenhoven awawasebenzisa ukuchaza isiAfrikaans njengolwimi olubhalwayo, mazwi lawo athi “igophe elikhula ngokukhawuleza”. Yavela ngolo hlobo ingcamango yomhlathi oyintloko; ngaphezulu enencam evulekileyo emela uhlumo.

Ukuchaza le ngcaciso ngokubonakalayo, eli gcisa lasebenzisa amazwi ombhali uNP van Wyk Louw. Yena wachaza isiAfrikaans”njengesixhobo esimenyezelayo” “nekrele elintlangothi-mbini” elidibanisa iNtshona Yurophu ne-Afrika njengebhulorho.

3 – Umfanekiselo wendawo yesikhumbuzo

Imihlathi engasekhohlo kuwe imela impembelelo yeelwimi neenkcubeko zaseNtshona Yurophu ekuphuhlisweni kwesiAfrikaans, kuquka isiDatshi, isiJamani, isiFrentshi nesiPhuthukezi. Akukho namnye kule mihlathi omela ulwimi oluthile ngokukhethekileyo. Le mihlathi isuka phezulu ukuya ezantsi ukubonisa ukuncipha kwempembelelo yeYurophu kwisiAfrikaans. Owona uphezulu kule mithathu umalunga ne-13,5m ukuphakama.

Ngowe-1652, iDutch United East India Company, okanye iVOC, yaseka isitishi sezimuncumuncu eKapa ukuze ithengise iimveliso ezifreshi kwiinqanawa ezidlulayo eziya nezibuya eMpuma.

I-VOC yayinomgaqo-nkqubo ongqongqo wolwimi, kukhethwa isiDatshi njengolwimi, yaye ubukhulu becala amagosa ayethetha isiDatshi esikuMgangatho Ophezulu. Oomatiloshe namajoni ayesiza evela kumazwe awahlukeneyo aseYurophu, kuquka iNetherlands, iJamani, iFransi namazwe aseScandinavia, kodwa ayenyanzelekile ukuba athethe isiDatshi. Ngenxa yoko ayethetha imo yaso eyenziwe lula, eyaziwa ngokuba sisiDatshi senkulungwane ye-17.

4 – Udonga olusezitepsini

Udonga olusezitepsini zendawo yesikhumbuzo lumela impembelelo yeelwimi zaseIndonesia (ubukhulu becala isiMalay) ekuphuhlisweni kwesiAfrikaans. Ekubeni isiMalay isesaseMpuma, olu donga lubekwe phakathi kwamagophe aseMpuma Yurophu ne-Afrika njengento eyahlukileyo. Kodwa ibumba umanyano nemikhosi emibini yaseNtshona Yurophu naseAfrika eyathi yadibana ukubumba ibhulorho ethi ngokufuziselayo ibonise ingcambu, iingcambu zesiAfrikaans.

  • Kwakha kwakho amakhoboka amaninzi kunabantu baseYurophu eKapa. Ukususela ngowe-1654, amakhoboka athathwa eMpuma nase-Afrika asiwa kwiKoloni yaseKapa, ubukhulu becala esuka eAngola, eGuinea, eMadagascar nakumaxweme aseIndonesia.
  • La makhoboka ayeneelwimi ezahlukeneyo, kodwa anyanzeleka ukuba afunde isiDatshi senkulungwane ye-17. Uninzi lwawo lwalukwathetha uhlobo lwesiPhuthukezi, esibizwa ngokuba yiMalay-Portuguese, esaba nempembelelo ebangel’ umdla kuphuhliso lwesiAfrikaans.
  • Namhlanje amagama amaninzi esiMalay ayafumaneka kwisigama sesiAfrikaans njengo-‘baie’ (‘ninzi’), ‘baadjie’ (‘ibhatyi’), ‘piesang’ (‘ibhanana’), ‘blatjang’ (‘ichutney’) ne-‘sosatie’ (‘i-kebab’).

IsiAfrikaans ngokobhalo lwesiArabhu yenye yeendlela zakudala zesiAfrikaans esibhalwayo yaye ibisetyenziswa eKapa ukususela ebutsheni beminyaka yee-1800. Abantwana bamakhoboka angamaSilamsi ayefundiswa unqulo ngolwimi abaluthethayo, olwathi kamva lwabizwa ngokuba sisiAfrikaans saseKapa, kodwa babesebenzisa ubhalo lwesiArabhu. Ngenxa yoko u-Abu Bakr Effendi nabanye abefundisi abangamaSilamsi benza izimbo ezikhethekileyo ezimela izandi ezithile zefonetiki zesiAfrikaans koonobumba besi-Arabhu. Phakathi kowe-1870 nowe-1950, ubuncinane kuye kwaprintwa iincwadi ezingama-78 ngesiAfrikaans esibhalwe ngesiArabhu.

5 – Qonga needomu ezintathu

Eli qonga needomu ezintathu ekunene zimela impembelelo yeeKhoikhoi nezinye iilwimi zaseAfrika, kuquka isiXhosa, isiZulu nesiSuthu, ekuphuhlisweni kwesiAfrikaans, yaye zimela incam esemazantsi eAfrika. Ngokungafaniyo neelwimi zaseYurophu, ezi domu ziba nkulu ngenxa yokwanda kwempembelelo yeAfrika kwisiAfrikaans. Ezi zakhiwo zibekwa ngohlobo lokuba zibumbe igophe elidibanisa umgca oyintloko (oko kukuthi isiAfrikaans), yaye oko kugqibezela isangqa.

  • IsiDatshi sasinomgaqo-nkqubo wolwimi ongqongqo owawubonisa ukuba abamele iilwimi zomthonyama; ngenxa yoko, iiKhoikhoi ezazibathengisela imfuyo zaqalisa ukufunda isiDatshi senkulungwane ye-17. Bakhawuleza bafunda imo yaso eyenziwe lula, yaye ngokuzenzekelayo amagama olwimi lwabo lweenkobe angena aza atyebisa olu lwimi.
  • Namhlanje, isigama sesiAfrikaans sinamagama amaninzi esiwafumene kwisiKhoikhoi, ingakumbi amagama endawo njengo-‘Karoo’ (eyomileyo), amagama ezilwanyana njengo-‘koedoe’ (‘ikudu’), amagama ezityalo njengo-‘boegoe’ (i-‘buchu’) namagama aqhelekileyo njengo-‘dagga’ (‘intsangu’), ‘eina’ (‘shuu’), ‘abba’ (ukuthwala emqolo) nelithi ‘kierie’ (‘intonga’).
  • Ezii domu zikwamela impembelelo yesiXhosa, isiZulu nesiSuthu kwisiAfrikaans. Imizekelo yamagama abolekwe kwezi lwimi sisiAfrikaansyile ‘aikôna’ (‘hay’ khona’ okanye ‘tu kwaphela’), ‘indaba’ (‘umcimbi’ okanye ‘intlanganiso’) no-‘tokkelossie’ (uthikoloshe).

 6 – Ibhulorho

Ngaba uyabona ukuba adibana njani la magophe enze ibhulorho? U-NP van Wyk Louw, umbhali owakhuthaza igcisa, wabhala wathi isiAfrikaans sinolunye unyawo eAfrika luze olunye lube se Yurophu, nto leyo ethetha ukuba olu lwimi lusekwe kuwo omabini la mazwekazi. Wandula ke achaze isiAfrikaans njengebhulorho phakathi kweelwimi zaseYurophu nezaseAfrika.

Apho la magophe mabini aseMpuma Yurophu neAfrika adibana khona, kubunjwa ibhulorho, ebonisa ukudibana okukhuthazayo kweelwimi zamazwekazi amabini.

7 – Umhlathi oyintloko

Owona mhlathi uphakamileyo (malunga nemitha ezingama-57 ukuphakama) ubonisa ukukhula kwesiAfrikaans yaye uvulekile phezulu. Omnye umbhali okhuthaze igcisa, uCJ Langenhoven, wabhala wathi isiAfrikaans sikhula “njengegophe elikhula ngokukhawuleza”.

  • Umhlathi oyintloko wale ndawo yesikhumbuzo umela “igophe elikhula ngokukhawuleza” lesiAfrikaans nokukhula kwaso okukhawule zayo. Lo mhlathi umi kwiqula lamanzi omthombo omeleza ngakumbi ingcamango yolu lwimi njengoluphilayo nolukhulayo, olufuna ukondliwa ukuze lukhule. Imigca etsolo yomhlathi imela “ikrele elintlangothi-mbini” lombhali uNP van Van Wyk Louw. Lo mhlathi uvulekile encamini yaye ubuthuntu ukubonisa ukuba olu lwimi lusakhula. Ukudlala kwesikhanyiso kule ndawo yesikhumbuzo, ngenxa yequla lamanzi neendawo ezivulekileyo kumhlathi oyintloko, kubonisa isiAfrikaans “njengesixhobo esimenyezelayo”.
  • Ngoxa isiAfrikaans siboleke amagama kwezinye iilwimi, ezinye iilwimi ezininzi, ingakumbi iilwimi zase-Afrika nazo ziboleke amagama esiAfrikaans. Awona aziwa kakhulu achaza izilwanyana, njenge-‘meerkat’ ne- ‘springbok’, kwakunye ne-‘veld’, i-‘trek’, i-‘spoor’, i-‘koppie’, i-‘kommando’, i-‘apartheid’ ne-‘rooibos’. Ukungalilibali igama elithi ‘Afrikaans’!

8 – Omthombo

Umbono weli gcisa wakukuba umhlathi oyintloko ufanele uvuleke ukubonisa ukuba olu lwimi lusakhula. Incam enyukileyo yodonga inoluhlu lweendawo ezivulekileyo apho ukukhanya okuphumelayo nemitha yelanga ziyila ukukhanya okumangalisayo ngaphakathi. Oku kukhanya namanzi omthombo zibonisa ukukhula ngamandla kolu lwimi.

9 – Umhlathi we-iRiphabhliki yoMzantsi Afrika

Kufutshane nomhlathi oyintloko, kwiqula, kukho omnye umhlathi (malunga neemitha eziyi-26 ukuphakama) obonisa iRiphabhliki yoMzantsi Afrika, indawo yokuzalwa kwesiAfrikaans.

Lo mhlathi uvuleke eAfrika ukubonisa ukuba unxibelelwano phakathi kwesiAfrikaans, uMzantsi Afrika neAfrika luyaqhubeka njengoko luye lwakhula ngokupheleleyo lwaba lulwimi oluzimeleyo lomthonyama eAfrika.

10 – Inkqubo yokwakha

Umsebenzi wokwakha kule ndawo yesikhumbuzo wathatha iminyaka emibini ukususela ngowe-1972 ukuya kutsho ngowe-1974 yaye uxabisa i-R700 000. Le ndawo yesikhumbuzo kwakufuneka ifane nje nokusingqongileyo ngenxa yoko yakhiwa ngomxube wekonkriti okhethekileyo oquka isamente, isanti emhlophe ne-granite yasePaarl.

  • Lo mxube wagalelwa kwimoldi eyenziwe kwangaphambili enefreyimu yentsimbi enemarine plywood.
  • Ngenxa yokuba igcisa belifuna ukuxelisa umbala wamatye akwesi siza, lanyanzelisa ukuba ukuba kusetyenziswe imicwe yegranite ebungwevu-bumdaka yangaphandle kunye necandelo elibublu langaphakathi. Uburhabaxa bamatye akwesi siza baxeliswa ngokususa isamente egudileyo ngedrili esebenza ngekhompresa ukuveza igrabile ye-granite kumxube. Ungakhululeka uyive ukuba ivakala njani.
  • Umhlathi oyintloko ungakwazi ukumelana nemimoya emandla efikelela kwiikhilomitha ezili-160km ngeyure.

INdawo yeSikhumbuzo soLwimi lwesiAfrikaans ifanele ibonwe njengomkrolo kunokuba ibonwe njengomsebenzi wobugcisa. Kukho iinkalo zobuRhabaxa kwesi sakhiwo, nokusetyenziswa kwekonkriti ekrwada kuyindlela esetyenziswa ehlabathini lonke kwiindawo zesikhumbuzo ukususela kwisiqingatha sokugqibela senkulungwane yama-20.

11 – Ingcwaba likaJan van Wijk

Igcisa lale ndawo yesikhumbuzo, uJan van Wijk, lasweleka ngowama-2005. Kuzo zonke iiprojekti uJan aye wakuzo ebomini bakhe, imagnum opus yakhe, iNdawo yeSikhumbuzo yoLwimi, ibiyeyona isondeleyo entliziyweni. Ngoko kufanelekile ukuba lube uthuthu lwakhe luye lwafakwa kwisamente ekwilitye le-granite apha, kwilitye elikufutshane nalapho yena nomfazi wakhe ababehleli khona ngowe-1964 xa babehlola intaba belungiselela uyilo lwakhe.

Ebudeni bomsebenzi wakhe, uJan wabakho kwiiprojekti ezingaphezu kwama-870. Wafumana iimbasa eziliqela, kuquka iWonga leBhaso loBugcisa, leZiko loMzantsi Afrika leNzululwazi noBugcisa.

12 – Groen Galery

IGroen Galery, i-open air gallery, yasekwa ukuze ixhase umsebenzi kaJan, obonisa ukukhathalela imo yemvelo yoMzantsi Afrika. INdawo Yesikhumbuzo yoLwimi lwesiAfrikaans ingaphezulu lee kwendawo yesikhumbuzo; asingomava enkcubeko nje, kodwa ngawemvelo noyolo. Imiboniso yethutyana iboniswa apha kwiibhokisi zokubonisa eyenziwe ngamaplanga neglasi ehlaziyiweyo.

13 – INtaba yasePaarl

INtaba yasePaarl imalunga neminyaka engama-500 ezigidi ubudala yaye idume ngamatye amakhulu amathathu e-granite abizwa ngokuba yiPaarl, iBretagne neGordon. Abona bemi kudala bekhona, iKhoikhoi, bayibiza le ngokuba yiNtaba yoFudo.

Phantse phakathi kwesi siza ekuso le ndawo yesikhumbuzo kukho indulana enamatye ekukho kuwo amaqela amatye egranite. Ziindidi ezincinci zelitye lasePaarl yaye linika imbono yokuba imvelo iphindaphinda imigca efanayo namagophe ngokuphindaphindiweyo ezintabeni.

taalmonumente in suid-afrika